In this English lesson for economists, we’ll look at some population facts recently released by the United Nations.
Hi everyone. Today is July 20, 2022.
Well, sometimes the planet feels like a pretty crowded place to be. According to the United Nation’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the global population will continue to grow, but they project that the growth rate will slow.
In a moment, we will look at some key takeaways from this report, but first, let’s review a bit of vocabulary so you can discuss the issue of population growth in English.
- Demography: The scientific study of human populations, including their sizes, compositions, distributions, densities, growth, and other characteristics.
- Life expectancy: The average period that a person may expect to live.
- Fertility rate: A rough definition of “fertility rate” is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime.
- To surpass: To exceed. It is a fancy way to say “to pass”.
Here are some key takeaways from the UN report:
- The world’s population is projected to reach 8 billion on 15 November 2022
- Global population could grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050, and 10.4 billion in 2100 (That means that population growth is slowing down)
- Life expectancy at birth for women exceeded that for men by 5.4 years globally. Life expectancy for females is 73.8 years, and for males, it is 68.4 years. (Women live longer than men)
- India is projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country by 2023. (India will have a larger population than China beginning sometime next year)
- Total fertility has fallen markedly in recent decades for many countries. Today, two-thirds of the global population lives in a country or area where fertility is below 2.1 births per woman. (Women are having fewer children than before)
The report explains that more than half of the projected increase in global population up to 2050 will be concentrated in just eight countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Managing this booming population will present a serious challenge for policymakers in those countries. It will be felt by other countries, too, as population growth can be a driver of migration if the national economies cannot keep pace.
If you want to practice English vocabulary related to population and demographics, you could also review podcast number 13, which looked at the topic of immigration.
You can also contact me here if you are interested in taking some private English conversation classes that focus on issues related to the economy. With these classes, I will increase your fluency in no time.
Remember these words and expressions from today’s lesson.
Demography / Life expectancy / Fertility rate / To surpass
Okay. That’s it for now. I will be back next week with another English lesson for economists. See you then.